TD250 Six Channel 250V Amplifier for Driving Piezo Tubes

TD250 Six Channel 250V Amplifier for Driving Piezo Tubes

The TD250 is an ultra-low noise, six-channel voltage amplifier with a bipolar 250V output range. The six channels can be driven independently, or configured as three channels with non-inverting and inverting outputs, which are ideal for driving piezoelectric tube scanners. The three-channel configuration can also be used to obtain +/-500V with a bridged load.

The TD250 can drive unlimited capacitive loads such as piezoelectric tubes, stack actuators, standard piezoelectric actuators, and bender actuators. Applications include, nanopositioning, microscopy, electro-optics, vibration control, and piezoelectric motors.

The output connector is an industry standard 9-Pin D-Sub connector. The amplifier is supplied with a 75cm output cable and breakout PCB. A breakout box is also available which provides BNC connectors for each output and a plug-in screw-terminal connector. OEM and customized versions are also available.

enquiry

Specifications

Electrical Specifications
Output Voltage Range +/-250V
RMS Current 22 mA per channel
Peak Current 50 mA per channel
Gain 25 V/V
Slew Rate 30 V/us
Signal Bandwidth 50 kHz
Power Bandwidth 20 kHz (400 Vp-p)
Max Power 25 W
Load Stable with any load
Noise <70 uV RMS (100 nF Load)
Protection Over-current protection
Input Impedance 100 kOhm
Input Connectors BNC
Output Connector 9 Pin D-Sub
Power Supply 90 Vac to 250 Vac

Mechanical Specifications
Environment 0 - 40 C (32-104 F), Non-condensing humidity
Dimensions 275 x 141 x 64 mm (10.8 x 5.5 x 2.5 in)
Weight 1 kg (2.2 lb)

Channel Configuration

The standard configuration for the TD250 is three non-inverting and inverting pairs for driving piezoelectric tubes and bridged loads, the order code for this configuration is TD250-INV. As illustrated below, the outputs can also be configured as six independent non-inverting channels, which has the order code TD250.

TD250 Channel Configuration

TD250 channel configuration

The front panel output connector is an industry standard 9-Pin Female D-Sub Connector (TE 3-1634584-2). Any Male 9-Pin D-Sub connector is compatible. The connector pinout is shown below.

Output Connector Pinout

Output connector pinout

SignalPin
Output 15
Output 29
Output 34
Output 48
Output 53
Output 67
Ground1,2,6

Driving Piezoelectric Tube Scanners

The voltage range, noise, and bandwidth of the TD250 have been optimized for driving piezoelectric tube scanners, for example the TB6009. Although many configurations are possible, the driven internal electrode configuration shown below is simple and provides the maximum X, Y and Z travel range. This configuration requires a tube with a continuous internal electrode and four external electrodes.

In the driven internal electrode configuration, the X and Y electrodes are driven in the standard way with equal and opposite voltages. By applying the full-scale negative voltage to the internal electrode, a contraction equal to half the vertical scan range is obtained. This method exploits the higher positive electric field strength of the piezoelectric material, which is usually five times the negative electric field strength. Care must be taken not to apply positive voltages to the internal electrode, since this can risk depolarization if the tube voltage limit is less than ±500V, which is commonly true for tubes less than 1.2mm thick.

Driving Piezoelectric Tubes

Driving piezoelectric tubes

Another common electrode configuration uses a separate circumferential electrode for the Z axis. This electrode is driven by a single channel with the full bipolar range.

In larger piezoelectric tubes, it is possible to quarter the external and internal electrodes. The internal electrodes can be either grounded or driven in the bridged configuration. Since the bridged configuration doubles the voltage difference across the piezo material, the thickness can also be doubled which significantly improves the resonance frequency. The disadvantages of this method include increased wiring and fabrication difficulty.

Bridged Load Configuration

To obtain an output voltage range of +/-500V, the TD250-INV can used with a bridged load, as illustrated below.

Bridged Configuration using TD250-INV

Bridged configuration using TD250-INV

In the bridged configuration, the power bandwidth can be assessed by using the full peak-to-peak load voltage in the calculator, or by doubling the effective capacitance.

Power Bandwidth

Power Bandwidth Calculator

With a capacitive load, the peak load current for a sine-wave is $$ I_{pk}=\pm V_{pp} \pi C f ,$$ where \(V_{pp}\) is the peak-to-peak output voltage, \(C\) is the load capacitance, and \(f\) is the frequency. Given a peak current limit \(I_{pk}\), the maximum frequency is therefore \(f=I_{pk}/V_{pp} \pi C\). However, the TD250 is protected by both peak and average current limits. The average current \(I_{av+}\) is defined as the average positive or negative current. For example, for a sine-wave $$I_{av+} = \frac{1}{2\pi} \int_{0}^{\pi} I_{pk} \sin(\theta) d\theta = \frac{I_{pk}}{2\pi} \left[-\cos\right]_0^\pi = \frac{I_{pk}}{\pi} .$$ Therefore, for a sine-wave \(I_{av+}=I_{pk}/\pi\). Since the average current limit of the TD250 is \(I_{av+}=0.26\), the maximum frequency sine-wave, or power bandwidth of the TD250, is equal to $$ f = \frac{0.01}{V_{pp} C}.$$ The above result is true for any periodic waveform such as a triangular signal. The RMS current for a sine-wave can also be related to the average current, $$ I_{av+} = \frac{\sqrt{2}}{\pi} I_{rms} .$$

The power bandwidths for a range of load capacitance values are listed below.

LoadPeak to Peak Voltage
Cap200V300V400V500V
No Load50 kHz33 kHz25 kHz20 kHz
3 nF12 kHz8.3 kHz6.2 kHz5.0 kHz
10 nF4.5 kHz3.0 kHz2.2 kHz1.8 kHz
30 nF1.6 kHz1.0 kHz800 Hz640 Hz
100 nF490 Hz330 Hz240 Hz190 Hz
300 nF160 Hz110 Hz83 Hz66 Hz
1 uF50 Hz33 Hz25 Hz20 Hz

Power bandwidth versus load capacitance

In the following figure, the maximum frequency periodic signal is plotted against the peak-to-peak voltage.

TD250 Power bandwidth

Power bandwidth versus voltage and load capacitance

Small Signal Bandwidth

TD250 Small signal frequency response

Small signal frequency response

Load Cap.Bandwidth
No Load100 kHz
3 nF39 kHz
10 nF14 kHz
30 nF5.1 kHz
100 nF1.5 kHz
300 nF520 Hz
1 uF150 Hz

Small signal bandwidth versus load capacitance (-3dB)

Noise

The output noise contains a low frequency component (0.03 Hz to 20 Hz) that is independent of the load capacitance; and a high frequency component (20 Hz to 1 MHz) that is inversely related to the load capacitance. Many manufacturers quote only the AC noise measured in the 20 Hz to 100 kHz range, which is usually a gross underestimate.

The noise is measured with an SR560 low-noise amplifier (Gain = 1000), oscilloscope, and Agilent 34461A Voltmeter. The low-frequency noise is measured to be 50 uV RMS with a peak-to-peak voltage of 300 uV. This noise level is less than the resolution of a state-of-the-art 24-bit digital-to-analog converter

The high frequency noise (20 Hz to 1 MHz) is listed in the table below versus load capacitance. The total noise from 0.03 Hz to 1 MHz can be found by square summing the RMS values, that is $$ \sigma = \sqrt{ \sigma_{LF}^2 + \sigma_{HF}^2 } .$$

Load Cap.BandwidthHF Noise RMSTotal Noise RMS
No Load100 kHz130 uV139 uV
3 nF39 kHz80 uV94 uV
10 nF14 kHz50 uV71 uV
30 nF5.1 kHz30 uV58 uV
100 nF1.5 kHz40 uV64 uV
300 nF520 Hz50 uV71 uV
1 uF150 Hz70 uV86 uV

RMS noise versus load capacitance (0.03 Hz to 1 MHz)

Overload Protection

Each channel is independently protected against average and peak current overload. Exceeding these limits will result in signal distortion.

The front-panel overload indicator will illuminate when the total power supplied to all channels is greater than 25W. This can occur when all channels are simultaneously operated at full power or when there is a failure of one or more channels. During a maximum power overload, the power supply is temporarily disabled and will reset once the power drops below 25W.

When the amplifier is first turned on, the overload protection circuit is engaged by default and will require approximately two seconds to reset.

Breakout PCB

The included breakout PCB connects to the included D-sub cable and provides screw-terminal access to the output signals. The screw terminal block can be exhanged with wires or any other connector with a pitch of 2.54 mm.

The breakout PCB also includes a location for a series resistor and parallel capacitor. This is useful for reducing the bandwidth when using small load capacitances (< 30nF). For suitable capacitance values, refer to the table "RMS Noise Versus Load Capacitance". Note that capacitances should be a film type rated for 500 Vdc, e.g. EPCOS B32671P5104K.

Breakout PCB

Supplied Breakout PCB

Breakout Box

The breakout box provides BNC connectors for each output and a plug-in screw-terminal connector (Amphenol 20020004-D081B01LF). The breakout box connects to the amplifier via an included 75cm male-male 9-Pin D-Sub cable.

Order Code: TD250-Breakout

TD250 Breakout box
TD250 Breakout box

Plug-in screw terminal connector

Plug-in screw terminal connector

Output Cables

A number of 300 V D-Sub cables are available for the amplifier. All are supplied with at least one 9-Pin D-Sub connector for connecting to the amplifier. The second connector is either a D-Sub connector for connecting to the breakout box, or free wires. A DSUB9-MM-75cm cable is supplied with the amplifier.

Connector 2LengthOrder Code
9 Pin Male75 cmDSUB9-MM-75cm
9 Pin Male150 cmDSUB9-MM-150cm
Free Wires75 cmDSUB9-MW-75cm
Free Wires150 cmDSUB9-MW-150cm

9 Pin D-Sub cables

9 Pin male-male D-Sub cable

9 Pin male-male D-Sub cable

SignalColor
Out 1Yellow
Out 2Grey
Out 3Orange
Out 4Purple
Out 5Red
Out 6Blue
GroundBrown, Green, Black

Cable Wire Color

Enclosure

The TD250 enclosure has a side air intake and rear exhaust. These vents should not be obstructed.

TD250 Dimensions

TD250 Dimensions

Warranty

PiezoDrive amplifiers are guaranteed for a period of 3 months. The warranty does not cover damage due to misuse or incorrect user configuration of the amplifier.